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LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA

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Full-scaled investigations of the physics and chemistry of gas-discharge (low-temperature) plasma in a vacuum and at high pressures are in progress at the Institute.
    The experimental data for the mechanisms and cross-sections of incipience and the destruction of discharged and excited particles are being obtained during the investigations of plasma with a condensed dispersed phase. New channels of electron adhesion, direct and inhibited ionization are being revealed. A volumetric stratified gas discharge of low pressure (of the glowing type) was registered in several molecular gases.
    It was determined during the study of induction transformation discharge that the addition of mercury, antimony, and sulfur vapors increases several times the discharge's luminosity in visual and ultraviolet ranges of spectrum. The effect of the external longitudinal magnetic field on the electric arc and induction discharges was established. This effect provides their considerable contraction and significant decrease in radiative and convective fluxes into walls of discharge chambers. Studying the dynamics of arc combustion and complex heat transfer between the arc plasma and the gas flow and its limiting walls allowed us to determine regularities of the discharge and flow structure for the turbulent gas and plasma flow, as well as the efficiency of the wall's gas cooling from the heat fluxes of the turbulent arc.
    These studies provided reliable control methods for the field strength and discharge power. They helped us to show the influence of acoustic oscillations (in an intrasectional space) on dynamic characteristics of the arc. With the help of calculations and the experimental studies of near-electrode processes, we can optimize the heat state and erosion of thermal emission cathodes.
    The intensively cooled thermal cathode with extremely low specific erosion is being developed, taking into account the recycling of tungsten ions. On the basis of the heat model, methods for a significant increase in the service-life of cold electrodes were suggested for heavy-current discharges.
    The results of the investigation of the plasma generator with a notching outlet cathode demonstrated a real possibility for obtaining the ascending volt-ampere characteristics of the arc, and its stable burning in the ballastless regime (the electric productivity is close to 1) from a source with firm outer characteristics (uxx = const). A peculiarity in the plasma flow through a channel effects the course of electrode destruction.
    Criterial relationships for main physical processes in discharge chambers were established. Electric and heat characteristics were generalized for electric arc plasmagenerators. These characteristics are the basis for the designing of various plasma devices. Several high-efficient generators with low-temperature plasma and a capacity of 10-1000 kW were developed at the Institute.    Investigations of the closed, without-electrode inductive electric dischargers of a transformer type, with a current frequency of 10 kHz allowed us to create a unique transformer plasmagenerator operating at atmospheric pressure.

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Spherical stratification of a discharge in a high-molecular gas.
Discharge stratification in air with a strong anisotropy of external boundary conditions.

The registration of an averaged length of plasmatron arc by a temperature field for the calculation of ascending U-I characteristics.

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The generation of a plasma jet by the arc plasmagenerator.

Аньшаков А.С., Урбах Э.К.
Тепловая оценка влияния скорости перемещения катодного пятна на эрозию электрода // Сиб. физ.-техн. журнал, 1993, вып. 3, С. 3-7.

Аньшаков А.С., Урбах Э.К., Цыдыпов Б.Д.
Оптимизация теплового состояния и ресурса стержневого термопроката // Теплофизика и аэромеханика, 1995, т. 2, № 2, С. 167-171.

Востриков А.А., Самойлов И.В.
Формирование отрицательных кластерных ионов при захвате электронов  // Письма в ЖТФ, 1992, т. 18, вып. 7, С. 59-62.

Жуков М.Ф. и др.
Электродуговые генераторы с межэлектродными вставками, Новосибирск: Наука, 1981, 231 с.

Коган В.А., Уланов И.М.
Исследование возможности создания плазмотронов трансформаторного типа  // ТВТ, 1993, т. 31, № 1, С. 105-110.

Нерушев О.А., Новопашин С.А., Радченко В.В., Сухинин Г.И.
Сферические страты в тлеющем разряде  // Письма в ЖЭТФ, 1997, т. 66, вып. 11, С. 679-682.

Уланов И.М., Рубцов Н.А., Солдатов С.Н., Васильковская А.С.
Экспериментальное исследование индукционных разрядов трансформаторного типа // Теплофизика и аэромеханика, 1997, т. 4, № 1, С. 93-100.

   
 

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